ITC Series on Non-Tariff Measures

Philippines: Company perspectives – An ITC Series on non-tariff measures

Philippines: Company perspectives – An ITC Series on non-tariff measures

Trade rules and procedures pose challenges for 73% of surveyed businesses in the Philippines, according to ITC interviews with over 1000 exporters and importers. The survey results offer the Philippine government to address non-tariff measures in the domestic business environment, based on detailed analysis of challenges across many sectors and markets. The report recommends strengthening the inter-agency National Committee on Trade Facilitation to align and sustain trade facilitation efforts. Priority should go to lowering firms’ expenses for conformity assessment requirements; streamlining customs clearance procedures; and streamlining procedures for export licenses, permits and certificates of origin.

Navigating Non-Tariff Measures: Insights From A Business Survey in the European Union

Navigating Non-Tariff Measures: Insights From A Business Survey in the European Union

European exporters have similar experiences with non-tariff measures (NTMs) as developing countries, especially for procedures related to technical regulations, conformity assessment and rules of origin. An ITC-European Commission survey, based on 8100 company interviews in all 28 European Union (EU) countries, reveals that more than a third of European exporters encounter burdensome NTMs, both within their countries and in destination markets. The report, unprecedented in scope, provides insight into trade-related technical assistance, so that developing countries improve their capacity to trade with the EU. It also serves as a foundation to integrate the voice of European businesses in trade negotiations and policymaking. (English, 2016)

Thailand: Company Perspectives

Thailand: Company Perspectives

Thailand, one of the world’s most export-driven economies, is a leading exporter of rice, various food products and electronic components. ITC surveyed over 1,000 Thai companies to understand their perceptions of non-tariff measures (NTMs). Overall, 38% of Thai exporters are affected by burdensome NTMs. Difficulties proving compliance to technical requirements, administrative hurdles relating to obtaining certificate of origins and border clearance procedures are the key concerns of exporters. The study also finds Thai authorities taking appropriate measures to address companies’ concerns and facilitate trade. (English, 2016)

Indonesia: Company Perspectives

Indonesia: Company Perspectives

As a major palm oil, cocoa, rubber and coffee exporter, Indonesia plays a key role in global and regional commodity markets. An ITC survey among 950 Indonesian companies finds that 51% of fresh and processed food exporters face burdensome regulations. Delays and high costs for technical and compliance requirements are their major trade obstacles. The companies recommended upgrading national testing facilities for accreditation, recognizing conformity procedures, and training programmes for SPS and quality requirements for food exports to overcome barriers. (English, 2016)

Egypt: Company Perspectives

Egypt: Company Perspectives

Egypt has much to gain from increased transparency of regulations, procedures, and better-defined rules of origin, according to the ITC survey on non-tariff measures in 2011. Nearly 40% of surveyed companies in Egypt are affected by regulatory and procedural trade obstacles. Agri-food exporters struggle with strict tolerance limits in Europe and labelling requirements in Arab States. Rules of origin and certification stand out as challenges for manufacturing exporters; administrative and infrastructural challenges increase compliance difficulties. For importers, conformity assessments, charges and taxes top the list of challenges. The results underline the need to better implement existing trade agreements for competitiveness and regional integration. (English, 2016)

Making regional integration work - Company perspectives on non-tariff measures in Arab States

Making regional integration work - Company perspectives on non-tariff measures in Arab States

Intraregional trade among Arab States is low compared with other regions. This publication offers insights into the main challenges to trade, both within and beyond the region, and suggests how to address them. It shares the perspectives of exporters and importers, which were captured through business surveys conducted by ITC in Egypt, Morocco, the State of Palestine and Tunisia. The surveys are part of an ITC series of developing-country projects on non-tariff measures (NTMs). This is the first such publication to examine country surveys in a regional context. (English, 2015)

Regulatory and procedural barriers to trade in Kazakhstan: Needs Assessment (EN)

Regulatory and procedural barriers to trade in Kazakhstan: Needs Assessment (EN)

A third of surveyed companies in Kazakhstan reported problems related to technical requirements, certificates of origin and quantity control measures imposed by partner countries, as well as export certification and quantitative restrictions imposed by domestic authorities. In most cases companies found these measures difficult due to procedural deficiencies, such as excessive paperwork, limited facilities and delays. The book is co-published with UNECE which evaluated trade facilitation practices and regulatory and standardization policies in Kazakhstan. The analysis concludes with practical action-oriented recommendations. (English and Russian, 2014)

Regulatory and procedural barriers to trade in Kazakhstan: Needs Assessment (RU)

Regulatory and procedural barriers to trade in Kazakhstan: Needs Assessment (RU)

A third of surveyed companies in Kazakhstan reported problems related to technical requirements, certificates of origin and quantity control measures imposed by partner countries, as well as export certification and quantitative restrictions imposed by domestic authorities. In most cases companies found these measures difficult due to procedural deficiencies, such as excessive paperwork, limited facilities and delays. The book is co-published with UNECE which evaluated trade facilitation practices and regulatory and standardization policies in Kazakhstan. The analysis concludes with practical action-oriented recommendations. (English and Russian, 2014)

The Invisible Barriers to Trade: How Businesses Experience Non-Tariff Measures

The Invisible Barriers to Trade: How Businesses Experience Non-Tariff Measures

Small firms in the world’s poorest countries are hit hardest by non-tariff measures, according to an ITC study on how businesses experience non-tariff measures in 23 developing countries. The impact of NTMs on companies and countries is highly uneven. Small firms are most affected (over 50%). NTMs for agricultural exports to developed countries are perceived as a major hurdle; so are regional markets for manufacturing exports in developing countries. These invisible barriers to trade are mostly a combination of conformity and pre-shipment requirements requested abroad, and weak inspection or certification procedures at home. Over 11,500 exporters and importers participated in the surveys; details on the methodology and additional survey results are in the report. (English, 2015)

Guinea: Company Perspectives

Guinea: Company Perspectives

Guinea is one of the countries most affected by non-tariff measures. An ITC survey of more than 300 companies in Guinea reveals that 95% of them face such obstacles when exporting or importing goods. Companies suffer from the stringency and complexity of European technical and compliance requirements and from the lack of efficiency and transparency of inspection and taxation procedures at the national and regional level. The survey shows that a large part of trade barriers can be addressed through the simplification and increased transparency of national administrative procedures. (French, 2015)

State of Palestine: Company Perspectives

State of Palestine: Company Perspectives

The State of Palestine has scope to facilitate trade by streamlining procedures and enhancing transparency of rules and procedures, according to an ITC survey on non-tariff measures among 239 Palestinian exporters. Inspections, quality control measures and rules of origin are considered the most onerous measures reported by Palestinian exporters. Domestic procedural inefficiencies include delays, high fees (such as for certificates) and arbitrary behaviour of officials. The report puts forward recommendations on transparency, trade information, product quality and conformity assessment, and underlines the importance of implementing the Palestinian national export strategy. (English, 2015)

The United Republic of Tanzania: Company Perspectives

The United Republic of Tanzania: Company Perspectives

Some 70% of Tanzanian businesses say they face burdensome NTMs, mostly related to food and agro-based products, according to a recent ITC survey. Nearly 84% of these cases are for exports to developing countries, mostly to the East African Community and the Southern African Development Community. NTMs for exports to the European Union are also a major concern. Rules of origin, conformity assessment, pre-shipment inspection and other entry formalities are the biggest challenges. At the same time, most Tanzanian importers also report that they face similar NTMs. (English, 2014)

Cambodia: Company Perspectives

Cambodia: Company Perspectives

Lack of adequate SPS infrastructure and a recognized national standards body in the country is one of the primary causes of difficulties faced by Cambodian exporters, according to ITC’s new country study on non-tariff measures. A survey of 502 exporters and importers in Cambodia finds 69% of the enterprises to be facing difficulties with trade-related regulations. It also highlights hindrances such as inefficiencies and corruption in public agencies to be affecting trade, leading to long delays and high trade cost.

Côte d’Ivoire: Company Perspectives

Côte d’Ivoire: Company Perspectives

Côte d’Ivoire exporters face more obstacles in the regional market than in global markets, reveals a recent ITC survey on non-tariff measures. Two-thirds of exporting companies encounter obstacles related to non-tariff measures. A main challenge is the delivery of certificates of origin to export in neighbouring countries. While several agreements are put into place to enhance trade integration and development, many barriers remain for their concrete application. (French, 2014)

Senegal: Company Perspectives

Senegal: Company Perspectives

Senegalese firms cited many non-tariff measures that affect their ability to compete in global markets, in a recent ITC survey. Some 260 companies surveyed in Senegal revealed that national administrative procedures to address foreign and national requirements represent the major non-tariff barrier. Lack of electricity, high transport costs and customs clearance are also important barriers. To help the private sector in Senegal to meet international requirements, Senegal needs to streamline national conformity assessment procedures and improve its business environment. (French, 2014)

Kenya: Company Perspectives

Kenya: Company Perspectives

Streamlining government procedures, improving transport maintenance and IT infrastructure and better dissemination of trade-related information are cited as keys to improving Kenya’s export performance, in an ITC country study on NTMs. Two-thirds of companies surveyed in Kenya are facing difficulties with trade-related regulations, according to 750 Kenyan exporters and importers interviewed for the ITC survey. They particularly cite difficulties in complying with technical requirements due to red tape and delays in public agencies. The study also confirms that countries of the East African Community need to make greater efforts to harmonize procedures and product standards. (English, 2014)

Rwanda: Company Perspectives

Rwanda: Company Perspectives

Rwandan exporters face onerous standards imposed by private clients in addition to government requirements, an ITC survey reveals. Fair Trade certificates demanded by clients in the European Union, especially for coffee and tea, are bringing costs and delays that seriously hinder Rwandan exporters, they say. Other concerns are bottle sizes imposed by private regional partners, as well as packaging and means of transport imposed by regional, European Union and United States clients. Of 529 Rwandan importers and exporters interviewed, 75% reported burdensome NTMs and trade impediments. (English, 2014)

Mauritius: Company Perspectives

Mauritius: Company Perspectives

Mauritian exporters claim to be less affected by trade barriers than many other countries that have participated in the ITC business surveys on NTMs. Among the 400 Mauritian firms surveyed, 27% of exporters and 36% of importing firms reported they were affected by NTMs. The main concern is conformity assessment for the European Union, the largest market for Mauritian exports. In addition, companies reported a disproportionate share of measures related to the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). COMESA countries comprise only 6% of Mauritian agricultural exports, however, they accounted for 29% of company concerns related to NTMs. (English, 2014)

Paraguay: Company Perspectives

Paraguay: Company Perspectives

NTMs affect Paraguayan companies more than those in other Latin American countries, an ITC survey reveals. Of 406 exporters and importers, 62% report problems linked to burdensome NTMs, particularly testing and product certification requirements. Taxes and charges and quantity control measures are hampering regional integration in MERCOSUR. Procedural obstacles, such as inefficiencies in institutions, make export and import processes more complex. The report outlines policy recommendations to overcome the negative impacts of identified NTMs. (Spanish, 2013)

Jamaica: Company Perspectives

Jamaica: Company Perspectives

New, small and medium-sized enterprises in Jamaica are more affected NTMs than larger firms, according to a study conducted by the ITC. The study also suggests that a lack of information and adequate resources makes it harder for SMEs to overcome obstacles to trade. Of more than 600 businesses surveyed, approximately 35% faced burdensome NTMs. Among exporting companies 41% identified NTMs as a major deterrent to the success of their businesses, while the high incidence of burdensome NTMs experienced by the manufacturing, processed food and agro-based industries was highlighted as a cause for concern. (English, 2013)

Tunisia: Company Perspectives

Tunisia: Company Perspectives

A survey of 600 exporters and importers in Tunisia shows that 80% face difficulties with non-tariff measures, which generate extra costs for companies. Tunisian firms face barriers such as burdensome conformity assessment procedures, quotas and complicated rules of origin. There are also procedural hindrances, such as delays and high fees. Companies also report difficulties due to strict export requirements, such as inspection and certification for quality, as well as a lack of trade-related infrastructure. These issues need to be streamlined to raise competitiveness in international markets. (French, 2014)

Trinidad and Tobago: Company Perspectives

Trinidad and Tobago: Company Perspectives

Most non-tariff measures applied to exporters in Trinidad and Tobago are found in neighbouring Caribbean countries, according to a new ITC survey. The survey of 500 businesses showed that the most burdensome NTMs are applied by partner countries. Half of the companies surveyed said that most obstacles are within the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), particularly in Barbados and Jamaica. Addressing these obstacles will lead to greater transparency for business practices, regulations and requirements, thus promoting the ease of doing business in the country. (English, 2013)

Uruguay: Company Perspectives

Uruguay: Company Perspectives

This study summarizes the results of a survey of 458 exporters and importers in Uruguay. Overall, 54% of companies reported facing burdensome regulations. While many burdensome NTMs are applied by partner countries, in particular by the European Union, the United States and regional trading partners in MERCOSUR, many procedural obstacles lie at home. Surveyed companies expressed the need to strengthen institutions, streamline the issuance of certificates, improve the way information about NTMs is disseminated, and provide technical assistance to exporters. The report outlines options to address these needs. (Spanish, 2013)

Malawi: Company Perspectives

Malawi: Company Perspectives

This ITC survey of exporters and importers in Malawi reveals that their main challenges to access markets abroad are twofold in relation to non-tariff measures. First, product certification is problematic: companies have difficulties to meet international standards. In addition, Malawi lacks an internationally accredited facility to certify products. Second, export licensing is a real challenge due to the many institutions involved, which contributes to inefficiency in issuing licenses. This report presents and analyses the survey results, including trade policy implications for Malawi. It also outlines the recommendations established in a public-private dialogue on the survey results. (English, 2013)

Madagascar: Company Perspectives

Madagascar: Company Perspectives

The majority of trade obstacles in Madagascar involve the high number and complexity of national controls and inspections as well as cumbersome and opaque Malagasy administrative procedures. A recent survey on non-tariff measures conducted with 400 exporters and importers in Madagascar also reveals that companies have difficulty meeting stringent quality and certification requirements imposed by partner countries. These obstacles underline the need for the government to strengthen its national quality strategy by streamlining and upgrading national inspection and certification procedures and infrastructure. (French, 2013)

Peru: Company Perspectives

Peru: Company Perspectives

A recent ITC survey of 960 Peruvian companies shows that 40% face challenges related to NTMs, mostly in the USA, the EU and some countries in Latin America. While Peru’s exports doubled in five years, resources of specialized technical agencies have not increased accordingly. Certification and inspection have thus become a bottleneck. Information systems about NTMs need strengthening, as many issues faced particularly by small and medium-sized firms emerged from their lack of knowledge about regulations. Relevant authorities and specialized agencies have yet to further integrate processes and improve cooperation. Decentralization of technical and logistical infrastructure can alleviate the strain on capacities in the capital and drive export growth in the regions. (Spanish and English, 2012)

Morocco: Company Perspectives

Morocco: Company Perspectives

This report outlines trade barriers faced by firms in Morocco, based on an ITC study. Companies are particularly concerned about partner’s technical regulations (SPS), including the lack of infrastructure and cumbersome procedures, as well as national inspection requirements. The study serves as a basis to help develop public policy to address the issues raised by these firms. (French, 2012)

Burkina Faso: Company Perspectives

Burkina Faso: Company Perspectives

Non-tariff measures (NTMs) affect Paraguayan companies more than those in other Latin American countries, an ITC survey reveals. Of 406 exporters and importers, 62% report problems linked to burdensome NTMs, particularly testing and product certification obstacles, such as inefficiencies in institutions, make export and import processes more complex. The report outlines policy recommendations to overcome the negative impacts of identified NTMs. (French, 2012)

Sri Lanka: Company Perspectives

Sri Lanka: Company Perspectives

This report presents results of an ITC survey of over 500 businesses in Sri Lanka on their views regarding NTMs. Enterprises in Sri Lanka report difficulties with a broad range of measures, in particular with technical testing, inspection and certification, which are required to demonstrate conformity with sanitary and phytosanitary measures. They must cope with a lack of trade-related infrastructure and burdensome procedural requirements. Strikingly, the problems lie on both sides of the border - limiting the competitiveness of enterprises, especially smaller ones, and their ability to integrate into the global economy and maximize the benefits of international trade. (English, 2011)

Non-Tariff Measures and the Fight Against Malaria: Obstacles to trade in anti-malarial commodities

Non-Tariff Measures and the Fight Against Malaria: Obstacles to trade in anti-malarial commodities

Paper focusing on specific non-tariff measures (NTMs) that could negatively affect the affordability and accessibility of anti-malarial commodities - introduces non-tariff measures and other obstacles to trade; present the results of a business-perception survey, conducted by ITC, on NTMs faced by importers and exporters of anti-malarial commodities (medicines for treating/preventing of malaria, diagnostic tests, mosquito nets, insecticides for indoor residual spraying, and pumps for spraying indoor insecticides). (English, 2011)